ភាសាបាលី

អត្ថបទនេះត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាផ្សេង ដែលមិនមែនជាភាសាខ្មែរ។ បើសិនជាអត្ថបទទុកសម្រាប់អ្នកអានមកពី សហគមន៍នៃភាសាមួយនេះ វាគួរតែចែកចាយទៅវិគីភីឌាជាភាសានោះ។ សូមមើល បញ្ជីនៃគម្រោងវិគីភីឌាទាំងអស់។

សូមមើល ច្រកចូលអត្ថបទនេះ លើក្រុមទំព័រដែលត្រូវការបំណកប្រែទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ ដើម្បីពិភាក្សា ។ ប្រសិនបើ អត្ថបទមិនត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាខ្មែរឡើងវិញទេ ក្នុងរយៈពេលពីរសប្ដាហ៍ទៀត អត្ថបទនឹងត្រូវចុះបញ្ជីដើម្បីលុបចោល និង/ឬ ប្ដូរវាទៅកាន់វិគីភីឌាជាភាសាដើមរបស់វាវិញ ។

បាលី (i)គឺជាភាសាឥណ្ឌូ-អារ្យមជ្ឈិមមួយ (ឬ ប្រាក្រឹត) នៃឧបទ្វីបឥណ្ឌា ។ បាលីជាភាសាបុរាណមួយបែប ដែលមនុស្សជំនាន់​​ដើម​និយាយ​ទាក់ទងគ្នា ។ មនុស្ស​ខ្លះ​និយម​ហៅ​ភាសា​បាលី​ថា​ជា​ភាសារបស់ព្រះពុទ្ធ។ សព្វថ្ងៃ គេឃើញមានភាសានេះនៅក្នុងក្បួនច្បាប់មួយចំនួនធំ ដូចជាក្នុងព្រះពុទ្ធ​វចនៈ (ព្រះត្រៃបិដក) ជាដើម​ និង មាន​ពុទ្ធបរិស័ទខាងនិកាយ​ថេរវាទ​យក​ទៅ​ប្រើ​តាម​ប្រទេស​រៀង​ខ្លួន ។

ពាក្យថា បាលី បានសេចក្តីថា ជួរ ឬដងព្រៃ ,ស្ពាន , របៀប , ភាសាដ៏មានរបៀបមួយ ។ This name for the language seems to have its origins in commentarial traditions, wherein the Pali (in the sense of the line of original text quoted) was distinguished from the commentary or vernacular translation that followed it in the manuscript. As such, the name of the language has caused some debate among scholars of all ages; the spelling of the name also varies, being found with both long "ā" [aː] and short "a" [a], and also with either a retroflex [a] or non-retroflex [l] "l" sound, as in the ISO 15919/ALA-LC rendering, Pāli. To this day, there is no single, standard spelling of the term; all four spellings can be found in textbooks. R.C. Childers translates the word as "series" and states that the language "bears the epithet in consequence of the perfection of its grammatical structure".[១]

Pali is a literary language of the Prakrit language family. When the canonical texts were written down in Sri Lanka in the first century BCE, Pali stood close to a living language; this is not the case for the commentaries.[២] Despite excellent scholarship on this problem, there is persistent confusion as to the relation of Pāli to the vernacular spoken in the ancient kingdom of Magadha, which was located around modern-day Bihār.

Pali as a Middle Indo-Aryan language is different from Sanskrit not so much with regard to the time of its origin as to its dialectal base, since a number of its morphological and lexical features betray the fact that it is not a direct continuation of Rigvedic Vedic Sanskrit; rather it descends from a dialect (or a number of dialects) that was, despite many similarities, different from Rigvedic.[៣]

នៅក្នុងប្រភពនៃ ថេរវាទ ត្រូវបានស្គាល់ភាសាបាលីជាភាសា មគធៈ (Magadha). ភាសានេះត្រូវបានសរសេរនៅក្នុងព្រះត្រៃបិដក, អដ្ឋកថា ជាដើម, ហើយ​នឹង​ត្រូវ​បាន​ព្យាយាម​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​ដោយ​ពុទ្ធ​សាសនិក​ជន​​ជា​ច្រើន ដើម្បី​ងាយ​ស្រួល​ក្នុង​ការ​ប្រាស្រ័យ​ទាក់​ទង​នឹង​សាសន៍​ដទៃ​ដែល​​កាន់​​ព្រះពុទ្ធ​សាសនា​ដូចគ្នា ។ ព្រះ​ពុទ្ធ​បង្រៀន, ប្រទាន​ឱវាទ ដល់​ជន​ទាំង​ឡាយ​ជា​ភាសា​មគធៈ ប៉ុន្តែ​ទី​ស្ថាន​សំខាន់​ៗ​ ៤ ​កន្លែង​របស់​ព្រះអង្គ​ ស្ថិត​នៅ​ក្រៅ​តំបន់​នេះ​ទាំង​អស់ ។ វា​ប្រហែល​ជា​ភាសា​បាលី​ជា​គ្រាម​ភាសា​ដែល​ធ្វើ​អោយ​​មាន​ការ​ងាយ​ស្រួល​ក្នុង​ការ​ពន្យល់​ និង ​ងាយ​យល់​ពីសំណាក់​ប្រជាជន ឥណ្ឌូអារ្យមជ្ឈិម ។ គេ​ពុំ​ទាន់​ឃើញ​មាន​​ភស្តុតាង​​ណា​មួយ​ដែល​អាច​បញ្ជាក់ពីភាសា​ដទៃ​របស់​ពួក​ ឥណ្ឌូអារ្យមជ្ឈិម​ ដែល​ប្រសើរ​​ជាង​​ភាសា​បាលី​ទេ ។ គេ​ឃើញ​មាន​​ភាសា​បាលី​នៅ​ក្នុង​សិលា​ចារឹក​​ជា​ច្រើន​​របស់​ព្រះបាទ​អសោកនៅ ​Girnar​ ផ្នែកខាងលិចប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា, និង c នៅខាងកើត ។ Similarities to the Western inscription may be misleading, because the inscription suggests that the Ashokan scribe may not have translated the material he omreceived from មគធៈ into the vernacular of the people there. Whatever the relationship of the Buddha's speech to Pali, the Canon was eventually transcribed and preserved entirely in it, while the commentarial tradition that accompanied it (according to the information provided by ព្រះពុទ្ធឃោសៈ) was translated into olkភាសាសីហឡៈ and preserved local languages for several generations.

In Sri Lanka, Pali is thought to have entered into a period of decline ending around the 4th or 5th century (as Sanskrit rose in prominence, and simultaneously, as Buddhism's adherents became a smaller portion of the subcontinent), but ultimately survived. The work of Buddhaghosa was largely responsible for its reemergence as an important scholarly language in Buddhist thought. The Visuddhimagga and the other commentaries that Buddhaghosa compiled codified and condensed the Sinhalese commentarial tradition that had been preserved and expanded in Sri Lanka since the 3rd century BCE.

T.W. Rhys Davids in his book Buddhist India,[៤] and Wilhelm Geiger in his book Pali Literature and Language, suggested that Pali may have originated as a form of lingua franca or common language of culture among people who used differing dialects in North India, used at the time of the Buddha and employed by him. Another scholar states that at that time it was "a refined and elegant vernacular of all Aryan-speaking people."[៥] Modern scholarship has not arrived at a consensus on the issue; there are a variety of conflicting theories with supporters and detractors.[៦] After the death of the Buddha, Pali may have evolved among Buddhists out of the language of the Buddha as a new artificial language.[៧] R.C. Childers, who held to the theory that Pali was Old Magadhi, wrote: "Had Gautama never preached, it is unlikely that Magadhese would have been distinguished from the many other vernaculars of Hindustan, except perhaps by an inherent grace and strength which make it a sort of Tuscan among the Prakrits."[៨]

According to K.R. Norman, it is likely that the viharas in North India had separate collections of material, preserved in the local dialect. In the early period it is likely that no degree of translation was necessary in communicating this material to other areas. Around the time of Ashoka there had been more linguistic divergence, and an attempt was made to assemble all the material. It is possible that a language quite close to the Pali of the canon emerged as a result of this process as a compromise of the various dialects in which the earliest material had been preserved, and this language functioned as a lingua franca among Eastern Buddhists in India from then on. Following this period, the language underwent a small degree of Sanskritisation (i.e., MIA bamhana -> brahmana, tta -> tva in some cases).[៩]

Bhikkhu Bodhi, summarizing the current state of scholarship, states that the language is "closely related to the language (or, more likely, the various regional dialects) that the Buddha himself spoke." He goes on to write:

According to A.K. Warder, the Pali language is a Prakrit language used in a region of western India.[១១] Warder associates Pali with the Indian realm (janapada) of Avanti, where the Sthavira sect was centered.[១២] Following the initial split in the Buddhist community, the Sthavira branch of Buddhism became influential in western and southern India, while the Mahāsāṃghika branch became influential in central and eastern India.[១៣] Akira Hirakawa and Paul Groner also associate Pali with west India and the Sthavira sect, citing inscriptions at Girnar in Gujarat, India, which are linguistically closest to the Pali language.[១៤]

បច្ចុប្បន្ននេះ មុខវិជ្ជាភាសាបាលីត្រូវបានបញ្ចូល​ក្នុង​ផ្នែកពុទ្ធសាសនា ដើម្បីអោយ​ពុទ្ធ​សាសនិក​ជន​មាន​ភាព​ងាយ​ស្រូល​ក្នុង​ការ​អាន​គម្ពីរ និង​សូត្រ​នមស្សការជា​ប្រចាំ​រាល់​ថ្ងៃ។ ក្រៅពី​ខាង​ផ្នែក​សាសនា, ​អក្សរសាស្ត្រ កាលប្បវត្តិជាភាសាបាលី, ឯកសារ​ខាង​វិជ្ជាពេទ្យ​ និង​អក្សរ​ចារឹក​មួយ​ចំនួន គឺជា​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រយ៉ាង​សំខាន់​ផង​ដែរ ។ មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល​រៀន​ភាសា​បាលីដែល​គួរ​អោយ​កត់​សំគាល់​ក្នុង​ពេល​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​នេះ​ គឺ​មា​ននៅ​តែ​ក្នុង​ពុទ្ធ​សាសនា​ថេរវាទ នៅ​ប្រទេស​អាស៊ីអាគ្នេយ៍មាន​ដូច​ជា: ភូមា, ស្រីលង្កា, ថៃ, ឡាវ, និង កម្ពុជា។ ចាប់​តាំង​ពី​សតវត្យ​ទី​១៩, various societies for the revival of Pali studies in India have promoted awareness of the language and its literature, perhaps most notably the Maha Bodhi Society founded by Anagarika Dhammapala.

In Europe, the Pali Text Society has been a major force in promoting the study of Pali by Western scholars since its founding in 1881. Based in the United Kingdom, the society publishes romanized Pali editions, along with many English translations of these sources. In 1869, the first Pali Dictionary was published using the research of Robert Caesar Childers, one of the founding members of the Pali Text Society. It was the first Pali translated text in English and was published in 1872. Childers's dictionary later received the Volney Prize in 1876.

The Pali Text Society was in part founded to compensate for the very low level of funds allocated to Indology in late 19th-century England and the rest of the UK; incongruously, the citizens of the UK were not nearly so robust in Sanskrit and Prakrit language studies as Germany, Russia, and even Denmark. Without the inspiration of colonial holdings such as the former British occupation of Sri Lanka and Burma, institutions such as the Danish Royal Library have built up major collections of Pali manuscripts, and major traditions of Pali studies.

Virtually every word in Pāḷi has cognates in the other Prakritic Middle Indo-Aryan languages, e.g., the Jain Prakrits. The relationship to earlier Sanskrit (e.g., Vedic language) is less direct and more complicated. Historically, influence between Pali and Sanskrit has been felt in both directions. The Pali language's resemblance to Sanskrit is often exaggerated by comparing it to later Sanskrit compositions– which were written centuries after Sanskrit ceased to be a living language, and are influenced by developments in Middle Indic, including the direct borrowing of a portion of the Middle Indic lexicon; whereas, a good deal of later Pali technical terminology has been borrowed from the vocabulary of equivalent disciplines in Sanskrit, either directly or with certain phonological adaptations.

Post-canonical Pali also possesses a few loan-words from local languages where Pali was used (e.g. Sri Lankans adding Sinhalese words to Pali). These usages differentiate the Pali found in the Suttapiṭaka from later compositions such as the Pali commentaries on the canon and folklore (e.g., the stories of the Jātaka commentaries), and comparative study (and dating) of texts on the basis of such loan-words is now a specialized field unto itself.

Pali was not exclusively used to convey the teachings of the Buddha, as can be deduced from the existence of a number of secular texts, such as books of medical science/instruction, in Pali. However, scholarly interest in the language has been focused upon religious and philosophical literature, because of the unique window it opens on one phase in the development of Buddhism.

Although Sanskrit was said in the Brahmanical tradition to be the unchanging language spoken by the gods, in which each word had an inherent significance, this view of language was not shared in the early Buddhist tradition,[which?] in which words were only conventional and mutable signs.[១៥] Neither the Buddha nor his early followers shared the Brahmins' reverence for the Vedic language or its sacred texts. This view of language naturally extended to Pali, and may have contributed to its usage (as an approximation or standardization of local Middle Indic dialects) in place of Sanskrit. However, by the time of the compilation of the Pali commentaries (4th or 5th century), Pali was regarded as the natural language, the root language of all beings.[១៦][នរណា?]

Comparable to Ancient Egyptian, Latin or Hebrew in the mystic traditions of the West, Pali recitations were often thought to have a supernatural power (which could be attributed to their meaning, the character of the reciter, or the qualities of the language itself), and in the early strata of Buddhist literature we can already see Pali dhāraṇīs used as charms, e.g. against the bite of snakes. Many people in Theravada cultures still believe that taking a vow in Pali has a special significance, and, as one example of the supernatural power assigned to chanting in the language, the recitation of the vows of Aṅgulimāla are believed to alleviate the pain of childbirth in Sri Lanka. In Thailand, the chanting of a portion of the Abhidhammapiṭaka is believed to be beneficial to the recently departed, and this ceremony routinely occupies as much as seven working days. Interestingly, there is nothing in the latter text that relates to this subject, and the origins of the custom are unclear.

With regard to its phonology, R.C. Childers compared Pali to Italian: "Like Italian, Pali is at once flowing and sonorous: it is a characteristic of both languages that nearly every word ends in a vowel, and that all harsh conjunctions are softened down by assimilation, elision, or crasis, while on the other hand both lend themselves easily to the expression of sublime and vigorous thought."[១៧]

[iː]

ូ ឬ ឩ [uː]

Long and short vowels are only contrastive in open syllables; in closed syllables, all vowels are always short. Short and long e and o are in complementary distribution: the short variants occur only in closed syllables, the long variants occur only in open syllables. Short and long e and o are therefore not distinct phonemes.

A sound called anusvāra (Skt.; Pali: nigghahita), represented by the letter (ISO 15919) or (ALA-LC) in romanization, and by a raised dot in most traditional alphabets, originally marked the fact that the preceding vowel was nasalized. That is, aṁ, iṁ and uṁ represented [ã], [ĩ] and [ũ]. In many traditional pronunciations, however, the anusvāra is pronounced more strongly, like the velar nasal [ŋ], so that these sounds are pronounced instead [ãŋ], [ĩŋ] and [ũŋ]. However pronounced, never follows a long vowel; ā, ī and ū are converted to the corresponding short vowels when is added to a stem ending in a long vowel, e.g. kathā + ṁ becomes kathaṁ, not *kathāṁ, devī + ṁ becomes deviṁ, not *devīṁ.

The table below lists the consonants of Pali. In bold is the transliteration of the letter in traditional romanization, and in square brackets its pronunciation transcribed in the IPA.

Of the sounds listed above only the three consonants in parentheses, , , and ḷh, are not distinct phonemes in Pali: only occurs before velar stops and , and ḷh are allophones of single , and ḍh between vowels.

ស្ទើរតែគ្រប់ពាក្យទាំងអស់ក្នុងភាសាបាលី​ត្រូវបាន​ផ្លាស់​ប្តូរទំរង់​ដើម សម្រាប់ប្រើក្នុងការ​តភ្ជាប់ពាក្យដើម្បី​អោយ​មានន័យ​អាច​ស្តាប់បាន។ គេអាច​យល់​ន័យ​នៅក្នុង​ប្រយោគ​នីមួយៗដោយ​ការ​សំគាល់​លើពាក្យដែលត្រូវ​បាន​បំលែងទាំងនោះ ឧទាហរណ៍ ដូចជា គេ​អាច​ស្គាល់​ប្រធាន ឬស្គាល់កាល តាមរយៈការបំបែក​កិរិយាសព្ទក្នុង​ប្រយោគនោះ ជាដើម។​

ភេទសម្រាប់​សំគាល់​នាមសព្ទ​នៅក្នុងវេយ្យាករណ៍​បាលី មានបី​គឺ បុំលិង្គ (ភេទប្រុស), ឥត្ថីលិង្គ (ភេទស្រី), នបុំសកលិង្គ (ភេទខ្ទើយ ឬភេទមិនប្រុសមិនស្រី)។ នាមនេះ​ត្រូវ​បានបែងចែង​ជាពីរ គឺ ឯកវចនៈ និងពហុវចនៈ។ ម្យ៉ាងទៀត នៅពេល​ប្រើជាប្រយោគ​មួយៗ នាមសព្ទនេះ​ត្រូវបាន​បំបែកដើម្បី​បញ្ជាក់ន័យ​អោយ​ប្រធាន ឬកម្មបទ ដើម្បី​អោយ​​មានសេចក្តី​​ស្តាប់បាន ដែលគេហៅថាវិភត្តិ។ វិភត្តិនេះត្រូវបានចែកជា៨ប្រភេទគឺ បឋមា(ប្រធាន), ទុតិយា(កម្មបទ),តតិយា(អកម្ម,ធ្នាក់), ចតុត្ថី(កម្មបទប្រយោល), បញ្ចមី(ទំរង់បែងចែក), ឆដ្ឋី(បញ្ជាក់កម្មសិទ្ធ), សត្តមី(អាយតនិបាត), អាលបន(សម្ពោធន)។

អ-ការន្ត គឺជាស្រៈទីបំផុតមួយនៃនាមសព្ទដែលប្រព្រឹត្តទៅក្នុងបុំលិង្គ (ភេទប្រុស) និង នបុំសកលិង្គ (ភេទខ្ទើយ)។ គេសំគាល់"អ-ការន្ត" បានដោយពាក្យមាន"អ" (ៈ)នៅ​ខាង​ចុង មាន​ដូច​ជា បុរិស(បុ.រិ.សៈ), លោក(លោកៈ), ធម្ម(ធម្មៈ)ជា​ដើម។ នាម​សព្ទ​ដែល​ជា​ភេទ​ប្រុស និងភេទ​ខ្ទើយ​នេះ មាន​លក្ខណៈ​ខុស​គ្នា​តែនៅ​ក្នុង​សព្វ​នាម, អាលបនៈ, និង​កម្មបទ​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ។

នាមដែលបញ្ចប់ដោយ "អា" (ា) ភាគច្រើនជាឥត្ថីលិង្គ។

ឥ-ការន្ត និង ឧ-ការន្ត ភាគច្រើនជាបុំលិង្គ(ភេទប្រុស) ឬ នបុំសកលិង្គ(ភេទមិនប្រុស មិនស្រី)។ នាមដែលបំបែកក្នុងទំរង់ (ភេទ) ទាំង​ពីរ​នេះខុសគ្នាតែ​​សព្វនាម និង​កម្មបទ។ ចំណែក​ឯ​អាលបនៈដូចគ្នាទៅនឹង​សព្វនាម។

ខាងក្រោមនេះជាគាថាដកស្រង់ពី គាថាធម្មបទ:

ការប្រែពាក្យ:

ប្រែថា:

The most archaic of the Middle Indo-Aryan languages are the inscriptional Aśokan Prakrit on the one hand and បាលី and អឌ្ឍមគធី on the other, both literary languages.

The Indo-Aryan languages are commonly assigned to three major groups - Old, Middle and New Indo-Aryan -, a linguistic and not strictly chronological classification as the MIA languages are not younger than ('Classical') Sanskrit. And a number of their morphophonological and lexical features betray the fact that they are not direct continuations of Ṛgvedic Sanskrit, the main base of 'Classical' Sanskrit; rather they descend from dialects which, despite many similarities, were different from Ṛgvedic and in some regards even more archaic.

MIA languages, though individually distinct, share features of phonology and morphology which characterize them as parallel descendants of Old Indo-Aryan. Various sound changes are typical of the MIA phonology:

(1) The vocalic liquids 'ṛ' and 'ḷ' are replaced by 'a', 'i' or 'u'; (2) the diphthongs 'ai' and 'au' are monophthongized to 'e' and 'o'; (3) long vowels before two or more consonants are shortened; (4) the three sibilants of OIA are reduced to one, either 'ś' or 's'; (5) the often complex consonant clusters of OIA are reduced to more readily pronounceable forms, either by assimilation or by splitting; (6) single intervocalic stops are progressively weakened; (7) dentals are palatalized by a following '-y-'; (8) all final consonants except '-ṃ' are dropped unless they are retained in 'sandhi' junctions.

The most conspicuous features of the morphological system of these languages are: loss of the dual; thematicization of consonantal stems; merger of the f. 'i-/u-' and 'ī-/ū-' in one 'ī-/ū-' inflexion, elimination of the dative, whose functions are taken over by the genitive, simultaneous use of different case-endings in one paradigm; employment of 'mahyaṃ' and 'tubhyaṃ' as genitives and 'me' and 'te' as instrumentals; gradual disappearance of the middle voice; coexistence of historical and new verbal forms based on the present stem; and use of active endings for the passive. In the vocabulary, the MIA languages are mostly dependent on Old Indo-Aryan, with addition of a few so-called 'deśī' words of (often) uncertain origin.

Although Pali cannot be considered a direct descendant of either Classical Sanskrit or of the older Vedic dialect[សង្ស័យ ], the languages are obviously very closely related and the common characteristics of Pali and Sanskrit were always easily recognized by those in India who were familiar with both. Indeed, a very large proportion of Pali and Sanskrit word-stems are identical in form, differing only in details of inflection.

The connections were sufficiently well-known that technical terms from Sanskrit were easily converted into Pali by a set of conventional phonological transformations. These transformations mimicked a subset of the phonological developments that had occurred in Proto-Pali. Because of the prevalence of these transformations, it is not always possible to tell whether a given Pali word is a part of the old Prakrit lexicon, or a transformed borrowing from Sanskrit. The existence of a Sanskrit word regularly corresponding to a Pali word is not always secure evidence of the Pali etymology, since, in some cases, artificial Sanskrit words were created by back-formation from Prakrit words.

The following phonological processes are not intended as an exhaustive description of the historical changes which produced Pali from its Old Indic ancestor, but rather are a summary of the most common phonological equations between Sanskrit and Pali, with no claim to completeness.

Total assimilation, where one sound becomes identical to a neighboring sound, is of two types: progressive, where the assimilated sound becomes identical to the following sound; and regressive, where it becomes identical to the preceding sound.

An epenthetic vowel is sometimes inserted between certain consonant-sequences. As with , the vowel may be a, i, or u, depending on the influence of a neighboring consonant or of the vowel in the following syllable. i is often found near i, y, or palatal consonants; u is found near u, v, or labial consonants.

There are several notable exceptions to the rules above; many of them are common Prakrit words rather than borrowings from Sanskrit.

ស្តេច អសោក (Ashoka) បានសាងសង់សរសរស្តំ (pillar)​ មួយចំនួន ព្រមទាំង​បាន​បញ្ញត្ត (ហាម)​ សរសេរភាសាប្រាក្រឹតតិចបំផុត ៣ តំបន់ ជាអក្សរ​ព្រាហ្មណ៍,[១៨] ដែលភាសាទាំងនោះស្រដៀងនឹងភាសាបាលី។ តាមការស្រាវជ្រាវ ផ្អែកលើ​ការ​​សាក​សួរ និង សង្កេត, គេជឿថា ព្រះត្រៃបិដក​​បាលី ​​ត្រូវ​បានសរសេរជាភាសាសីហឡ (Sinhala, Sinhalese) មុនគេ ​។ នៅក្នុងគម្ពីរមហាវង្ស (Mahavamsa) (កាលប្បវត្តិនៃ​ប្រទេស​ស្រីលង្កា), កំឡុងពេលមានទុរ្ភិក្ស (កង្វះ​អាហារ) ក្នុង​ប្រទេស, ព្រះសង្ឃជាសាវ័កនៃព្រះពុទ្ធ បានចារព្រះត្រៃបិដក ក្នុងកំឡុងរាជ នៃ​ស្តេច ដ្តគាមនី អភយៈ (Vattagamani Abhaya) ក្នុងពុទ្ធសករាជ ៤៤៤ (១០០ ឆ្នាំ មុនគ្រិស្ត​សករាជ) ។ ការ​សរសេរ​បាលី ​ត្រូវ​បាន​ថែ​រក្សា​ក្នុងប្រព័ន្ធអក្សរ​សកល តែ​វា​ត្រូវ​បាន​បញ្ជាក់​ពី​តម្លៃ​ជាក់​ស្តែង​គួរ​ឲ្យ​ភ្ញាក់​ផ្អើល​នៃ​អក្សរ​ដទៃ ៗ ។

ប្រទេស​កាន់​តាម​ពុទ្ធសាសនា​និកាយ​ថេរវាទ​នីមួយៗ បាន​កត់ត្រា​សំនៀង​អត្ថបទបាលី​ក្នុង​​ព្រះត្រ័យបិដក​ដោយ​ប្រើ​អក្សរ​នៃ​ជាតិ​របស់​ខ្លួន ដែល​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​មាន​សំនឿង​អាន​ ខុស​ប្លែក​ពី​គ្នា​ខ្លះ​ៗ ។ នៅប្រទេសកម្ពុជា អត្ថបទបាលីត្រូវបានសរសេរជាអក្សរ​ខ្មែរ, ប្រទេសស្រីលង្កា ប្រើ​អក្សរ​សីហឡ, នៅ​ប្រទេស​ភូមា (មីយ៉ាន់ម៉ា) ប្រើ​អក្សរ​មន, នៅ​ប្រទេសថៃ​ ប្រើ​​អក្សរ​ថៃ(ឆ្នាំ ១៨៩៣), នៅ​ប្រទេស​ឡាវ ប្រើ​អក្សរ​ឡាវ, នៅ​ប្រទេស​ឥណ្ឌា ប្រើ​ទេវនាគរី(Devanāgarī)។

ចាប់តាំងពីសតវត្យទី ១៩, ភាសាបាលីត្រូវបានសរសេរជាអក្សរ​ឡាតាំង (Latin) ទុក​ជា​គោល​សម្រាប់​ផ្ទៀង​ផ្ទាត់ និង​ សម្រាប់​អ្នក​សិក្សាស្រាវជ្រាវ ទូទៅ ។ An alternate scheme devised by Frans Velthuis allows for typing without diacritics using plain ASCII methods, but is arguably less readable than the standard Rhys Davids system, which uses diacritical marks.

អក្ខរៈសម្រាប់​ប្រើក្នុងភាសាបាលីមាន៤១តួ គឺ សរៈ(ស្រៈ) ៨ តួ និង ព្យញ្ជនៈ ៣៣ តួ

There are several fonts to use for Pali transliteration. However, older ASCII fonts such as Leedsbit PaliTranslit, Times_Norman, Times_CSX+, Skt Times, Vri RomanPali CN/CB etc., are not recommendable since they are not compatible with one another and technically out of date. On the contrary, fonts based on the Unicode standard are recommended because Unicode seems to be the future for all fonts and also because they are easily portable to one another.

However, not all Unicode fonts contain the necessary characters. To properly display all the diacritic marks used for romanized Pali (or for that matter, Sanskrit), a Unicode font must contain the following character ranges:

Some Unicode fonts freely available for typesetting Romanized Pali are as follows:

Some of the latest fonts coming with Windows 7 can also be used to type transliterated Pali: Arial, Calibri, Cambria, Courier New, Microsoft Sans Serif, Segoe UI, Segoe UI Light, Segoe UI Semibold, Tahoma, and Times New Roman. And some of them have 4 styles each hence usable in professional typesetting: Arial, Calibri and Segoe UI are sans-serif fonts, Cambria and Times New Roman are serif fonts and Courier New is a monospace font.

The Velthuis scheme was originally developed in 1991 by Frans Velthuis for use with his "devnag" Devanāgarī font, designed for the TeX typesetting system. This system of representing Pali diacritical marks has been used in some websites and discussion lists. However, as the Web itself and email software slowly evolve towards the Unicode encoding standard, this system has become almost not necessary and obsolete.

ខាងក្រោមនេះគឺជាតារាងប្រៀបធៀបន័យនិងការសន្មត់ប្រើឃីផ្សំ(key)

ព្រះរតនត្រ័យ (ព្រះពុទ្ធ · ព្រះធម៌ · ព្រះសង្ឃ· អរិយសច្ចៈទាំង៤ · អរិយដ្ឋង្គិកមគ្គ · ព្រះនិព្វាន · ផ្លូវកណ្ដាល

តថាគត · ប្រសូត · និមិត្ត៤យ៉ាង · មហាបុរិសលក្ខណៈ · ស្នាមព្រះពុទ្ធបាទ · បដិមាគន្ថីIconography · ខ្សែភាពយន្តFilms · ភាពអស្ចារ្យMiracles · ព្រះញាតិវង្ស: (ព្រះបាទសុទ្ធោទនៈ (ពុទ្ធបិតា) · ព្រះនាង​មាយា (ពុទ្ធមាតា) · ព្រះនាងយសោធរា (មហេសី) · ព្រះរាហុល (បុត្រា)· ពុទ្ធស្ថាន · ព្រះពុទ្ធនៅក្នុងសាសនាពិភពលោកBuddha in world religions

ត្រៃលក្ខណ៍: (អនិច្ចំ · ទុក្ខំ · អនត្តា) · បដិច្ចសមុប្បាទធម៌ · បញ្ចក្ខន្ធ · ច្បាប់នៃកម្ម · បដិសន្ធិ · សង្សារវដ្ត · សង្ខារ · កិលេស · អវិជ្ជា(ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា) · តណ្ហា · នីវរណធម៌ · សំយោជនៈ · ឥន្ទ្រីយ៍ · ការត្រាស់ដឹងEnlightenment (ការភ្ញាក់ដឹងAwakening) · ព្រះនិព្វាន · ភាពដូចគ្នា · Two truths doctrine · ភាពទទេ · ពោធិចិត្តBodhicitta · ព្រះពោធិសត្វ · ពុទ្ធធម្មជាតិBuddha-nature · Mindstream · Dzogchen

Ten spiritual realms · កាមភព (ឋាននរក · ឋានតិរិច្ឆាន · ឋានប្រេត · ឋានអសុរកាយ · ឋានមនុស្ស · ឋានសួគ៌) · ត្រៃលោក

ត្រៃសរណគមន៍  · Buddhist devotion · បូជា(ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា): (ថ្វាយ/ប្រគេន · នមស្ការ · ធម៌សូត្រ) · បុណ្យ · ព្រះបរិត្ត · ទាន · នេក្ខម្ម · សីល: (សីល៥ · ការអធិដ្ឋានរបស់ព្រះពោធិសត្វ · បាតិមោក្ខ) · Threefold Training: (សីល · សមាធិ · បញ្ញា(ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា)) · ព្រហ្មវិហារ: (មេត្តា · ករុណា · មុទិតា · ឧបេក្ខា) · បារមី · ពោធិបក្ខិយធម៌ · ពោជ្ឈង្គ៧ · ឥទ្ធិបាទ · ពលៈ៥ · សទ្ធា(ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា) · ព្យាយាម (សម្មប្បធាន៤) · សតិ (សតិបដ្ឋាន· ឈាន(ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា)  · ភាវនា · សមាធិ: (កម្មដ្ឋាន · អនុស្សតិ · Smarana · អានាបាណស្សតិ · សមថកម្មដ្ឋាន · វិបស្សនាកម្មដ្ឋាន · ឝ៊ីកកាន់តាកហ្សាកShikantaza · ហ្សាកហ្សេនZazen · គង់អាន · មណ្ឌលMandala · តុងលឹន · Tantra · តឺរតូនTertön · តឺរម៉ាTerma)

ព្រះពុទ្ធ · ព្រះបច្ចេកពុទ្ធ · ព្រះពោធិសត្វ · អរិយបុគ្គល: (សោតាបន្ន · សកទាគាមី · អនាគាមី · អរហន្ត)

ព្រះភិក្ខុសង្ឃ · ព្រះភិក្ខុនីសង្ឃ · សាមណេរ · សាមណេរី · អនាគារិយ · អាចារ្យ · សាយ៉ាដាវ · លោកគ្រូហ្សឹនZen master · ឡោឝ៊ឺកhi · ឡាម៉ា · រិនប៉ូឆេRinpoche · ហ្គេឝេ · ទុលគូ · អ្នកគ្រប់គ្រងផ្ទះHouseholder · ឧបាសក/ឧបាសិកា · សាវ័ក

ព្រះពុទ្ធ · ព្រះ​សារីបុត្រ · ព្រះមហាមោគ្គល្លាន · ព្រះអានន្ទ · ព្រះមហាកស្សបៈ · ព្រះអនុរុទ្ធ · ព្រះមហាកច្ចាយនៈ · ព្រះនន្ទ · ព្រះសុភូតិ · ព្រះបុណ្ណៈ · ព្រះឧបាលិ · ព្រះនាង​បជាបតិគោតមី · ព្រះនាងខេមា · ព្រះនាងឧប្បលវណ្ណា · ព្រះពុទ្ធឃោសាចារ្យ · ព្រះនាគសេន · ពោធិធម៌Bodhidharma · នាគាជ៌ុនNagarjuna · Asanga · Vasubandhu · Atisha · Padmasambhava · ដាឡៃឡាម៉ាDalai Lama

ព្រះត្រ័យបិដក: (វិន័យបិដក · សុត្តន្តបិដក · អភិធម្មបិដក· អដ្ឋកថា: (វិសុទ្ធិមគ្គ· មហាយានសូត្រMahayana sutras · សាសនប្បញ្ញត្តិពុទ្ធសាសនាចិនChinese Buddhist canon (ត្រៃបិដកហ្គូរីយ៉ូTripitaka Koreana) · សាសនប្បញ្ញត្តិពុទ្ធសាសនាទីបេTibetan Buddhist canon

ថេរវាទ · មហាយាន: (Zen · Pure Land · Tiantai · Nichiren · Madhyamaka · Yogacara) · Vajrayana: (Tibetan Buddhism · Shingon) · Early Buddhist schools · Pre-sectarian Buddhism · Basic points unifying Theravada and Mahayana

បង់ក្លាទេឝ · ភូតង់ · ភូមា · កម្ពុជា · ចិន · ឥណ្ឌា · ឥណ្ឌូនេស៊ី · ជប៉ុន · កូរ៉េ · ឡាវ · ម៉ាឡេស៊ី · ម៉ុងហ៊្គោលី · នេប៉ាល់ · ប៉ាគីស្ថាន · រុស្សី · សិង្ហបុរី · ស្រីលង្កា · តៃវ៉ាន់ · ថៃ · ទីបេ · វៀតណាម · មជ្ឈិមបូព៌ា: (អ៊ីរ៉ង់) · បស្ចិមប្រទេស: (អូស្ដ្រាលី · បារាំង · ចក្រភពអង់គ្លេស · សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក)

កាលប្បវត្តិ · សង្គាយនា · ប្រវត្តិពុទ្ធសាសនានៅឥណ្ឌាHistory of Buddhism in India · ការធ្លាក់ចុះពុទ្ធសាសនានៅឥណ្ឌាDecline of Buddhism in India · អសោករាជ · ពុទ្ធសាសនាក្រិកGreco-Buddhism · ពុទ្ធសាសនានិងពិភពរ៉ូមBuddhism and the Roman world · ការបញ្ជូនពុទ្ធសាសនាតាមផ្លូវសូត្រSilk Road transmission of Buddhism · ការធ្វើទុក្ខបុកម្នេញពុទ្ធសាសនិកPersecution of Buddhists

អភិធម្ម · តក្កវិជ្ជាLogic · ពុទ្ធវិទ្យាBuddhology · អវសាន្តវិទ្យាEschatology · តថភាពReality · ព្រះGod · មនុស្សនិយមHumanism · ពុទ្ធសាសនាផ្សារភ្ជាប់Engaged Buddhism · Socialism · Anarchism · សេដ្ឋកិច្ចវិទ្យាEconomics · បរមាណូនិយមAtomism · វិវត្តន៍Evolution · សីលវិជ្ជាEthics · សំណួរដែលឆ្លើយមិនរួចទាំងដប់បួន

សិល្បៈArt · សិល្បៈពុទ្ធនិយមក្រិកGreco-Buddhist art · កំណាព្យPoetry · រូបសំណាកព្រះពុទ្ធBuddha statue · Budai · Symbolism: (ធម្មចក្រ · ទង់ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា · Bhavacakra · Thangka) · Prayer wheel · Mala · Mudra · Mantra (Om mani padme hum) · Music · ថ្ងៃបូជា: (វិសាខបូជា · មាឃបូជា · ឧបោសថ) · ចូលព្រះវស្សា · ស្បង់បព្វជិតMonastic robe · Architecture: (វិហារ · កុដិ · ស្តូប · វត្ត · សិល្បៈនិងស្ថាបត្យកម្មវត្តថៃThai temple art and architecture) · សង្វេគជនីយដ្ឋាន: (លុម្ពិនី · ពុទ្ធគយា · ឥសិបតនៈ · កុសិនារា· ព្រះពោធិព្រឹក្ស · វត្តមហាពោធិMahabodhi Temple · ប្រតិទិន · ម្ហូបCuisine · សាកជាតិនិយមVegetarianism

ប្រយូរវង្សLineage · មេត្រីMaitreya · អវលោកេស្វរៈAvalokiteśvara (គង់ស៊ីងអ៊ីមGuan Yin) · អមិតាភៈAmitābha · ព្រហ្ម · មារ · ធម្មបទDhammapada · Vinaya · សូត្រSutra · ហិនយានHinayana · Liturgical languages: (បាលីPali · សំស្ក្រឹតSanskrit) · ការពិភាក្សាធម៌Dharma talk · កប្ប · អភិញ្ញា · ឫទ្ធិ

វិទ្យាសាស្ត្រScience · ចិត្តវិជ្ជាPsychology · Hinduism · ជៃនធម៌Jainism · សាសនាអាស៊ីខាងកើតEast Asian religions · គ្រិស្តសាសនាChristianity · ទេវទស្សនៈTheosophy · ចំណេះនិយមGnosticism

ព្រះពុទ្ធ​២៨​ព្រះអង្គ · ពោធិសត្វBodhisattvas · សាវ័កព្រះពុទ្ធ · ព្រះសូត្រ · សៀវភៅBooks · ឈ្មោះវត្តក្នុងប្រទេសនានា

Plate 10 from C. Faulmann: Illustrirte Geschichte der Schrift (1880). The upper half shows a text in Sanskrit (praise of Vishnu), written in Devanagari. For the script, while the lower half shows a text in Pali from a Buddhist ceremonial scripture called "Kammuwa" from Burma (probably in old Mon script). pp.485f. of that book.